## R project for statistical computing

given with just one subscript or index vector, then the corresponding values of the data vector only are used; in this case the dimension vector is ignored. Less resistant but statistically more efficient methods are available in packages, for example function rlm in package mass. Hist(x) hist(x, nclassn) hist(x, breaksb, ) Produces a histogram of the numeric vector. If a problem requires a gaussian family with a nonstandard link, this can usually be achieved through the quasi family, as we shall see later. This is done by starting a device driver. Thus given a n by 1 vector y and an n by p matrix X then X y is defined as (XX)-Xy, where (XX)- is a generalized inverse of X'X. Low-level plotting functions usually require some positioning information (e.g., x and y coordinates) to determine where to place the new plot elements. Table can then be used to read the data frame directly HousePrice - read. For example, the definition in the example below alters the prompt to and sets up various other useful things that can then be taken for granted in the rest of the session. Factors provide compact ways to handle categorical data.

The results often lead to insights that other data analysis methods tend not to yield. In addition, you can use options -arch, -no-environ, -no-init-file, -no-site-file and -vanilla between R and CMD: these affect any R processes run by the tools. min-vsizeN -min-nsizeN For expert use only: set the initial trigger sizes for garbage collection of vector heap (in bytes) and cons cells (number) respectively. On filesystems with links, a single file can be referred to by many filepaths. See the help facility for more details, and also for the follow-up function. Y poly(x,2) y 1 x I(x2) Polynomial regression of y on x of degree. For directory listings use les (also available as dir) or list. The data are: x - c(0.02,.02,.06,.06,.11,.11,.22,.22,.56,.56,.10,.10) y - c(76, 47, 97, 107, 123, 139, 159, 152, 191, 201, 207, 200) The fit criterion to be minimized is: fn - function(p) sum(y - (p1. (18) Conversion of character columns to factors is overridden using the stringsAsFactors argument to the ame function. For most users - creates a global bacon essay on council variable and assigns the value of the right hand side to. See Graphics, which can be read at almost any time and need not wait until all the preceding sections have been digested. 5.10 Frequency tables from factors Recall that a factor defines a partition into groups.